Numerical investigation of detachment and transport of particulate sturctures in wall-flow filters using lattice Boltzmann methods
N. Hafen, J.R.D. Thieringer, J. Meyer, M.J. Krause, A. Dittler
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2023, 956, A30, https://www.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2023.35, (open access)
The exhaust from combustion engines contains particulate matter (PM), which poses potential health risks to human lungs. Current emission laws place increasingly strict limitations on both PM and particle number, leading to the necessity of using wall-flow filters to separate out a significant amount of the introduced PM. As this leads to an increase in the filter's loading, it is regenerated continuously or periodically, leading to the rearrangement of individual particulate structures inside the filter channels. Such rearrangement events cause the formation of specific deposition patterns, which affect the filter's pressure drop, its loading capacity and the separation efficiency. In order to derive predictions on the formation of specific deposition patterns, the transient behaviour of individual particle structures needs to be examined. The present work investigates the detachment and transport of particle structures during filter regeneration with three-dimensional surface-resolved simulations using a lattice Boltzmann method. The goal of this work is the determination of relevant key quantities and their interpretation with respect to predictions regarding the resulting deposition patterns. In this context, it is shown that lift forces are not the predominant detachment forces for non-spherical particle structures, and that the stopping distance of such structures is too long to avoid back-end deposition.